For Estate Planning, Don’t Forget the Patent Estate (Part 2)

In my last blog we discussed the good news as to how a patent estate can be a real boon to estate planning.

To recap, patents are usually unvalued and hence a real challenge in family offices for estate planning. But used properly, patents and other IP assets can provide value for intergenerational changes in control and/or minimizing estate taxes. Here is a second case where Carthage Intellectual Capital Management (‘Carthage’) has proprietary processes to help family businesses and their tax and estate planning professionals.

Case 2- A family business with IP does not intend to transfer the business from a parent generation to successor generations. We will assume there are intellectual property (IP) assets (patents, trademarks, and copyrights are preferred) that confer substantial economic value to the business. An IP holding enterprise is formed to receive the IP and the license-back is created with the principal business. The IP holding enterprise may then be gifted to a family trust whose principal purpose is to maintain the IP assets, and receive and distribute back royalties to family members participating in the trust (other entities may be equally suitable but we call them a ‘trust’ as a generic description). In this case, the license back will depend on future occurrences as to when or how much royalty is paid as an annual rate for the license back itself. This in effect defers the need to value the IP assets at anything above the tax free gift basis at the time of gifting as there is not a fully defined income stream upon which to base an asset value.

If in the future the business is sold to a third party, a more substantial license royalty can be triggered as a consequence of the sale. The necessary use of the IP becomes a warranty obligation of the purchaser as the transferee of the license back. The sale price of the business may then consider the present value of the license back royalties payable to the trust. The selling family business can accept a lower effective sale price from  purchaser because the seller will be required to pick up the license back and make royalty payments triggered by the sale event. For the purchaser, the deductibility of the royalties is generally less that the borrowed capital and associated costs to acquire all assets in a fee simple transaction which can tolerate some purchase premium in a competitive bid situation.

The trust receives and distributes royalty income on a current basis and does not require a change in basis in the IP assets. The certainty of future royalty payments rests on the degree of risk of warranty default. If this is a low risk, it can allow the trust to borrow a principal sum based on the pledge of the continuing royalty income. This principal can be distributed to the trust beneficiaries tax free as an advance on future income. Running interest payments together with amortization of the IP transfer basis will offset future income taxes as a deductible trust expense. Alternately, the trust can sell off the IP assets and realize capital gains at that time for a distribution and liquidation of the trust itself.

Once again, Carthage has extensive experience and the patented processes that can guide family businesses through evaluation of their IP assets and the transactions that can satisfy their estate planning needs. Because these are sophisticated transactions, you will want to consult legal and accounting professionals to determine the suitability of IP for tax and estate planning purpose. But the good news is that Carthage will be there to help you when the time is right to unleash another hidden value of your IP. For another example, check my previous blog at www.carthageic.com.

For Estate Planning, Don’t Forget the Patent Estate (Part 1)

Lately, when I read about patents in the news, the focus is usually on mega companies and mega patent estates.  It’s true that about 80% of all US patents issue to large institutions and big businesses. But the 20% that’s left over still matters to the small businesses and inventors that own and use them. Taxes and estate planning are on the minds of many in this 20% category as the 2012 year winds down and the Bush tax cuts may be coming to an abrupt end. So it’s good news to know that a patent estate can be a real boon to estate planning.

Patents are usually unvalued and hence a real challenge in family offices for estate planning. But used properly, patents and other IP assets can provide value for both intergenerational changes in control and/or minimizing estate taxes. Here is the first of two cases where Carthage Intellectual Capital Management (‘Carthage’) has proprietary processes to help family businesses and their tax and estate planning professionals.

Case 1- Consider the family business where the next generation has taken management control of a business while the parent generation still owns a substantial portion of the business. If there are intellectual property (IP) assets (patents, trademarks, and copyrights are preferred), odds are good that they are unvalued even though they may confer substantial economic value to the business. If the IP assets are placed in a holding company, they can enter into a license back with the principal business for defined, time-based royalties to be paid back over the remaining economic life of the IP. This license-back allows for easy computation of a present value of the holding company. The stock of the IP holding company can then be exchanged with the business stock held by the parent generation in a tax free, ‘like kind’ exchange of property of equal value.

The royalties paid to the holding company can be distributed to provide an annuity income to the parent generation that now owns the IP holding company (and no longer owns the business). In turn the parent generation can, at its discretion, gift portions of the royalties to the next generation that may or may not be participants in the business. The royalty payments themselves are typically completely deductible to the back licensed business which lowers the total tax burden of the business. The back license itself is now an IP asset of a known transaction value that can be subsequently monetized by borrowings or subsequent sale and back-licensing. This latter option now increases the financial liquidity of the business by raising cash that reflects the IP asset value. Finally, the IP itself in the holding company is an amortizing asset, so over time, it dissipates to a zero or de minimis value for estate succession purposes. The amortization also acts to lower the net tax basis of the gross royalties.

Carthage has extensive experience and the patented processes that can guide family businesses through evaluation of their IP assets and the transactions that can satisfy their estate planning needs. To be sure these are sophisticated transactions and you will want to consult your professional service providers to determine the suitability of IP for tax and estate planning purpose. But the good news is that Carthage will be there to help you when the time is right to unleash another hidden value of your IP. For another example, check my next blog at www.carthageic.com.

Why Patent Attorneys should talk to Corporate Finance (and why Finance should listen)

Attention patent attorneys- if you could show your clients an extra $5 or $10 million in ‘found money’, would that be helpful? It’s easy to find and odds are that you helped your client in making it. I’m talking about patents of course. The question is- now that you’ve found it how do you get to the cash that’s in it? There are a few ways to go about it- most of them are hard but one is fairly easy. You are probably familiar with hard paths to patent cash- out-licensing, selling non essential assets or litigation. These ways are hard because finding the parties to complete the deals is hard or in the case of litigation expensive to initiate. Plus these deals are not a sure thing as to whether you can net out the cash after all your hard work and that can make clients very unhappy.

The easier way is monetization. Monetization is recapitalizing patents based on how useful they are in making money for the client. Your clients understand where they use patents for their own businesses, so there is good and reliable information that is easy to obtain and calculates the patent cash value. The counterparties to monetization deals are banks or investors that are eager to invest in your clients’ continuing successful use of those same patents. They are on your client’s side which can’t always be said about prospective licensees and certainly is never the case with infringers.

With monetization, each patent can easily represent US $1-5 million in cash value to the client’s business so even a portfolio of four or five patents can have US$ 4-25 million in ‘found money’ value. Decisions to monetize most often depend on decision makers in your client’s corporate finance department. This is where Carthage Intellectual Capital can help patent lawyers and their firms to close the deal with corporate finance on the ‘found money’ opportunities in patent portfolios. We know the translation values of invention claims and cash. And corporate finance can control the timing and quantity of patent monetization transactions to their maximum benefit. As patent attorneys, you will know where the future transactions will come from. I’m talking about the future patent estate of course. It’s a lot easier to get paid on new patent dockets with the found money of previous patents. Learn more at www.carthageic.com.

Send Lawyers, Guns and Money- and IP

In yesterday’s Wall Street Journal, I read the following in an article by Jennifer Smith and Ashby Jones:

The embattled New York law firm Dewey & LeBoeuf LLP has filed for bankruptcy protection, a move that effectively ends what had been at its height a 1,300-lawyer global enterprise and marks one of the largest law-firm failures in U.S. history.

Should we be surprised? America produces more lawyers than the rest of the world combined. In fact our recurring bumper crop of barristers is leading some institutions to offer subsidies for law students to not complete their legal education. And sadly, it’s led other US law firms besides Dewey & LeBoeuf to liquidate their partnerships. In the current soft economy the over-supply of billable hours is depressing the price per billable hour. The free market is at work in the business of law.

So what’s a lawyer to do? Perhaps emigration could work for some of the surplus. After all, the rule of law is essential for the orderly creation, preservation and transfer of wealth and property in free markets. Places like Brazil, Russia, Indonesia and China really could use more law and order to protect their burgeoning capitalist class from the predations of criminals, swindlers and politicians (but bring a gun just in case). It would certainly pave the way to more amicable dealings with the USA via the common language of law. Much of the greatness of America today was built by past generations of immigrants. Perhaps American lawyers are the vanguard of the next emigration cycle. But I doubt that many American lawyers will find solace in this option.

That leaves two other choices- quit lawyering or find something that is under-lawyered. There are many that would applaud the former option but I am not one of them. Instead what this army of disenfranchised lawyers can do is help to turn the universe of intellectual property assets (IP) into new investments.  This is the mission of Carthage Intellectual Capital Management. We can show lawyers through the principles of contracts and licensing how to turn IP- patents trademarks and copyrights- into cash for IP owners and royalty revenues for investors, bankers and financial institutions. There’s a real shortage of knowledgeable lawyers for IP based transactions. The money will be quite good and much safer than guns.